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香港,中国 - Media OutReach - 2020年2月3日 - 寒冷的天气下,暖烘烘的腊肉瓦煲饭必定大受欢迎。但腊肉及腊肠都是经过加工和腌制而成的红肉,经常食用的话会增加患大肠癌的风险。在香港私人执业的内科肿瘤专科邵祖德医师指出:「由于早期大肠癌的病征不明显,不少患者确诊时已属第三期。早期的大肠癌其实可以妥善治疗及医治,但如果过迟发现,现时有新一代的抗血管生成靶向药物,都能有效控制晚期大肠肿瘤,减低患者的化疗剂量。」

暖烘烘腊肉瓦煲饭 红肉增大肠癌风险

内科肿瘤专科邵祖德医师

美国的一项研究指出,非裔美国黑人饮食习惯西化,进食比较多红肉,他们大肠癌的发病率比多吃高纤维食物的非洲本土黑人高出多倍。而腊制食品除了是红肉外,亦是经过加工和腌制,当中的防腐剂含致癌成分,会破坏身体细胞的保护系统,造成细胞突变。另外,不少人吃瓦煲饭都爱吃香喷喷的锅巴,惟锅巴经过高温烹调,有机会产生致癌物质自由基。邵祖德医师表示:「在香港,不论男性或女性,大肠癌都是首二常见的癌症,近年更有年轻化趋势。」

大肠癌确诊 多属第三期

早期的大肠癌没有明显征状,尤其右半结肠癌,由于离肛门较远,大便在左边大肠凝结时,会将隠血遮盖,令患者难以察觉大便有血。因此香港政府鼓励55岁或以上人士接受大肠癌筛查,望能及早发现,及早治疗。若被确诊早期的大肠癌,一般会以微创手术刮除息肉或进行局部切除手术。

惟不幸的是,大部分患者确诊大肠癌时已属第三期,总体生存率只有30%。传统上,晚期转移性大肠癌的患者须在手术后接受化疗及放射治疗。邵医师指:「传统化疗会敌我不分地攻击患者体内的癌细胞及正常细胞,带来的副作用多,令患者感到不适、甚至对其他器官造成创伤,影响患者的生活素质。若患者年过75岁,化疗对其伤害更大。」

抗血管生成靶向药物更有效控病

大肠癌细胞须依赖很多健全的微血管供应氧气和其他营养物质,以大量细胞增殖,而新一代的抗血管生成靶向药物则能针对破坏这些增生的微血管,切断微血管递送营养予肿瘤细胞,肿瘤随之受抑无法生长。邵医师指出,新一代的抗血管生成靶向药物结合化疗后,临床可见治疗效果有所提升,患者须接受的化疗剂量亦能减少,从而减低化疗造成的副作用。

但在寒冷的天气下,炭炉上的瓦煲饭仍然吸引,故邵医师建议若要食用瓦煲饭,应同时食用更多蔬菜以做到膳食平衡。要预防大肠癌,改善饮食习惯及尽早接受大肠癌筛查都非常重要。若家族有患大肠癌的病史,应在30岁起定期接受筛查。

邵医师的一名60多岁的男性患者,约6年前发现早期大肠癌,当时曾接受化疗,但5年后复发​​,更出现肺转移。他接受医生建议以新一代的抗血管生成靶向药物结合化疗,控制肿瘤发展,最终亦成功达致完全缓解,暂时未有复发迹象。

资料来源 :

健康研究所

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