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香港,中国 - Media OutReach - 2019611 - 幽门螺旋杆菌感染是导致胃癌常见的主要高危因素,其次是吸烟、饮酒,及进食含大量防腐剂的食物,另有少部分病例相信是由于遗传。医学界已将幽门螺旋杆菌界定为引致胃癌的第一类致癌物。除了进食未经煮熟的海鲜及不洁食物外,压力也可造成肠胃内的幽门螺旋杆菌含量上升,增加胃癌风险。

 

压力大导致胃癌风险增高

中国香港肿瘤内科邵祖德医生

 

幽门螺旋杆菌喜欢生活在高酸性的环境中。都市人压力大,使得胃脏加剧酸性胃液分泌。长期胃酸过多,从而形成一个有利于幽门螺旋杆菌生存的环境。随着胃部幽门螺旋杆菌日益增多,胃壁或胃体开始发炎,严重时甚至可致胃溃疡。在修补黏膜溃疡的过程中,细胞或会出现基因变异而形成胃癌。研究发现,幽门螺旋杆菌阳性检出率高的地区,胃癌的发病率也高。

 

香港人常有胃酸过多及其他胃部不适,市民有时未必因胃部不适而就医,反而自行服用一些有中和胃酸功能的成药,以缓解症状。殊不知这些持续不适状况有机会是患上胃癌后身体发出的警报。但不少胃癌患者由于忽略了这些警示,又没有及早求医作进一步胃镜检查,因而错失黄金治疗期。

 

胃癌一般可分四期,第一期仅局限于胃黏膜,第二期开始侵蚀肌肉层。这两个阶段仍属早期,可采用胃镜手术切除胃黏膜,或者切除部分胃脏以获得根治。但当发展到第三期入侵淋巴结时,则只有二至三成根治率。至于第四期,又称为晚期,是指胃癌由原发部位转移至其他器官,当中包括肝脏。一般情况下,肿瘤科医生会用药物抑制癌细胞生长,从而延长病人生存期。

 

传统的治疗方法包括放疗或化疗,副作用很大,除了脱发、呕吐外,内脏组织及骨髓也会受到破坏,个中的身心痛苦确实只有患者自己才了解。目前有许多新一代的靶向治疗药物,其中一种称为血管内皮生长因子受体2拮抗剂(VEGFR-2 antibody)VEGFR-2拮抗剂主要通过抑制肿瘤血管的形成而断绝其血液和养分供应,使肿瘤停止生长并缩小,最终控制病情。VEGFR-2拮抗剂可用来作巩固及维持治疗,患者生存期可超过两年,副作用也大幅减少,让晚期胃癌患者在余下的岁月里,重拾有尊严的生活。

 

资料来源:

健康研究所

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